OSPF Basics

Open Shortest Path First, is an IGP used to distribute routing information within a single autonomous system (AS). OSPF is based on link state technology, used shortest path first algorithm developed by Dijkstra.

Few ‘+’ about OSPF: 

  • No limitation on hop count
  • Intelligent use of VLSM similar to EIGRP
  • Uses link state updates through an multicast address
  • Allows logical division of networks into areas and overall it’s OPEN SOURCE!!!

Whats a link state ?
OSPF is based on advertising link states. Link is like an router interface, the state of the link is a description of that interface and its relationship to its neighbouring routers.
Description of interference include, IP address, subnet mask of the interface, the type of interface it is connected to etc. The collection of these link states is called an Link-state data base.

SPF Algorithm for OSPF

The OSPF enabled routers on initialization or due to change any routing information, it generates link-state advertisements (LSA). This advertisement represents the collection of all link-states on that router.
All routers exchange link-states by means of flooding. Each router that receives a link state update should store a copy in its link-state database and then propagate the update to other routers.
After the database of each router is completed, the router calculates a shortest path tree to all destinations. The router uses the Dijkstra algorithm in order to calculate the shortest path tree. The destinations, the associated cost and the next hop to reach those destinations form the IP routing table
In case no changes in the OSPF network occur, such as cost of a link or a network being added or deleted. Any changes that occur are communicated through link-state packets and the SPF algorithm is recalculated in order to find the shortest path.

OSPF is hierarchical design, uses areas. Why areas ?

  • To decrease routing overhead
  • To speed up convergence
  • To confine the (in)stability to single areas of the network

OSPF allows us to subdivide the larger internetwork into smaller internetworks called areas.
Area 0 is called backbone area, all areas MUST connect to area 0

The router that connects other areas to the backbone area within an AS is called ABR (Area border Router).
The router that connects multiple autonomous systems (AS) together is called ASBR (Autonomous system Boundary router )

Router ID: It is an IP address used to identify a router or simply its a name of the router.
> highest IP address of all configured loopback interfaces or
> highest IP address out of all active physical interfaces or
> you can assign your own IP address

Neighbor(s): are 2 or more routers that have an interface on a common network, such as two routers connected on a serial link.

To successfully establish a neighbour relationship, these MUST match
> area id
> area type (stub, NSSA) or network type
> Hello or dead interval
> subnet mask
> authentication

Adjacency: is a relationship between two OSPF routers that permits direct exchange of route updates. Not all neighbours become adjacent depedends on type of network and configuration on routers
Examples: In multi-access networks, routers form adjacencies with designated and backup designated routers
In PPP, Point to multipoint, routes form with opposite side routers.


D-Link Video recorder – DNR-202L – Installation & Screenshots


DNR-202L is the D-Link’s simple solution to record videos on event or continuously to an attached external hard drive.

Download windows/mac setup from support.dlink.ca. Run the setup file.

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Note down the DNR-202L, IP address we may need it.

Create a password and confirm the password for DNR-202

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DNR-202 will now search for available cameras in the networks. Make sure the DNR-202L, computer and cameras are in the same network (or connected to the same router)


Select the camera and enter the password or create a password if there is no password set.

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A bit advanced OSPF

Adjacency Requirements

Once neighbors have been identified, adjacencies must be established so that routing (LSA) information can be exchanged. There are two steps required to change a neighboring OSPF router into an adjacent OSPF router:

  1. Two-way communication (achieved via the Hello protocol)
  2. Database synchronization, which consists of three packet types being exchanged between routers:
  1. Database Description (DD) packets
  2. Link-State Request (LSR) packets
  3. Link-State Update (LSU) packets

Once database synchronization is complete, the two routers are considered adjacent.

It is important to remember that neighbours will not form adjacency if the following do not match

  • Authentication
  • Hello and dead Intervals
  • Subnet
  • Area ID

An ABR is a router that belongs to more than one OSPF area. Maintains information from all directly connected areas in its topology table and doesn’t share the topological details between areas.
It will forward only routing information from one area to another.ABR separates LSA flooding zone, primary point for summarization and maintains LSDB for each area its connected to.
ASBR is an OSPF router with at least one interface connected to external network or different AS.
An ASBR is responsible for injecting route information learned via the external network into OSPF and doesn’t do automatically, but done through route distribution.

Link State Advertisements

Router LSA (Type 1) – Contains a list of all links local to the router, and the status and “cost” of those links. Type 1 LSAs are generated by all routers in OSPF, and are flooded to all other routers within the local area.

Network LSA (Type 2) – Generated by all Designated Routers in OSPF, and contains a list of all routers attached to the Designated Router.

Network Summary LSA (Type 3) – Generated by all ABRs in OSPF, and contains a list of all destination networks within an area. Type 3 LSAs are sent between areas to allow inter-area communication to occur.

ASBR Summary LSA (Type 4) – Generated by ABRs in OSPF, and contains a route to any ASBRs in the OSPF system. Type 4 LSAs are sent from an ABR into its local area, so that Internal routers know how to exit the Autonomous System.

External LSA (Type 5) – Generated by ASBRs in OSPF, and contain routes to destination networks outside the local Autonomous System. Type 5 LSAs can also take the form of a default route to all networks outside the local AS. Type 5 LSAs are flooded to all areas in the OSPF system

DCS-2530L Screenshots

DCS-2530L Setup 

Setup Advanced Maintenance Status
Setup wizard ICR and IR Admin Device Info
Network Setup HTTPS System Log
Wireless Setup Access List Firmware Upgrade
Dynamic DNS
Image Setup
Audio & Video
Motion Detection
Sound Detection
Time & Date
Event Setup
(Server, Media, Event, Recording)
SD card

Setup > Setup Wizard

Setup > Network Setup

Setup > Wireless Setup

Setup > Dynamic DNS

Setup > Image Setup

Setup > Audio & Video

Setup > Motion Detection

Setup > Sound Detection

Setup > Time & Date

Setup> Event Setup

Setup>Event Setup>Server

Setup > Event Setup > Media

Setup > Event Setup > Event

Setup > Event Setup > Recording

Setup > SD Card

Advanced > ICR & IR

Advanced > HTTPS

Advanced > Access List

Maintenance> Admin

Maintenance > System

Maintenance > Firmware Upgrade

Status > Device Info

Status > Log

Installing D-Link cameras – Android – mydlink lite


  1. Click on Add a New camera. Select NO/YES for QR Code Setup;select your camera. Select NO for WPS setup.
  2. LED on the camera must flash orange and click READY. Select your Wi-Fi network to which the camera needs to connected. Set/Create a password
    for the camera
    screenshot_2016-09-14-11-20-45 screenshot_2016-09-14-11-21-17 screenshot_2016-09-14-11-21-52

3. Time Zone is automatically set based on your phone’s time zone.Create or Add to your existing mydlink account. Setup done, you should see the camera listed under local/remote.
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DCS-936L – IP address Screenshots

You can be able to login to DCS-936L camera only through a computer (You cannot access the camera IP from tablet or mobile web browser)

Installing DCS-936L

Setup Maintenance Status
Setup Wizard Admin Device info
Network System Log
Wireless Setup  Firmware Upgrade
Dynamic DNS
Image setup
Audio & Video
Time & Date
Video Clip
IP filter
HTTPS setup
SD Recording
Motion Detection
Sound Detection
SD Management

Setup Wizard

Setup > Network
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Setup > Wireless Setup

Setup > Dynamic DNS

Setup > Image setup

Setup > Audio & Video

Setup > Time & Date

Setup > Video Clip

Setup > Snapshot

Setup > IP Filter

Setup > HTTPS setup

Setup > SD Recording
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Setup > Motion Detection

Setup > Sound Detection

Setup > SD Management

Maintenance > Admin

Maintenance > System

Maintenance > Firmware Upgrade

Status > Device info

Status > Log

Installing DCS-960L/936L/2530 Camera

There are couple of ways to install DCS-960L/DCS-936L/DCS-2530 cameras

Steps are similar for these 3 cameras. 

DCS-960L Screenshots

  1. mydlink lite app
  2. CWN Setup method(Camera Wi-Fi Network)
    Scenario 1: via Universal Setup Wizard
    Scenario 2: Via mydlink lite app

Motion Detection on DCS-960L

mydlink lite app (iOS / Android)

Step 1: Download mydlink lite app from app store or google play store.

Step 2: Click on Local tab, after the app explores for nearby cameras in the network click on ‘Add a new camera’

Step 3: If you have QR Code from the configuration card, scan the code or select NO for QR code and select the camera model manually.


Step 4: Plug in power adapter, click Next and select ‘NO’ for WPS and then click ‘Ready’ if the LED on the camera flashing Orange

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Step 5 : Connect your mobile to the camera Wi-Fi (SSID & password is on the configuration card or on the camera label). Get back to the app and click Next


Step 6: Now the camera will scan for your wireless networks. Select your wifi name from the list, enter password to connect


Step 5: After successful connection, app will set the timezone based on phone’s region settings. Click OK


Step 6: If you already signed in to mydlink account, you will be prompted to add to your mydlink account. Select YES and create a password for the camera. Now the camera is setup


Note: If you click on remote and if you get ‘firmware update’ notification, try upgrading the firmware, it may take upto 5-10 min.


Enabling Motion detection recording to SD card through mydlink lite app

  1. Tap on the camera from local/remote tab on mydlink lite app
  2. Click on the 3 dots on the top right corner
  3. Click on Settings, Motion detection

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4. Enable motion detection, select the active area (optional)and enable ‘Recording by motion detection’.

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5. Go back, and the recording is enabled to record to an SD card

Note : By default, the maximum video length is 1 min when enabled recording from mydlink lite app. You can change by login to the camera via its IP address

CWN Setup method

This setup can be used if for some reason you cannot able to complete setup using mydlink lite app on your phone/tablet.

Step 1: Connect your mobile phone/tablet/laptop to the camera wifi network. (The camera wifi name and password is on the configuration card you received with the camera)

Step 2: If you don’t see the camera wifi network, make sure the LED on the camera is blinking orange/amber and try factory reset on the camera.

28975755613_a9919221ce_oStep 3: Once connected, open a web browser on your phone/tablet and go to (type the numbers in the address bar and press enter).


Step 4: You will ask to enter username & password. By default username is Admin and leave the password field blank and click Login


Step 5: Once logged in, click on Setup and Wireless settings on the left.


Step 6 : Click on Scan/Site survey and connect to your wifi network, type your wifi password and click Save settings

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Step 7: Now the LED must be Green on the camera. If yes, the camera is on your network now.

Once the camera is on network, either you can register for mydlink service through mydlink lite app or Universal Setup wizard on your computer.

Through mydlink lite app

  1. Open mydlink lite app, click on local tab.
  2. Wait until the app finish ‘exploring nearby cameras’.
  3. Once done, you should be able to see the camera listed (If you don’t find the camera CLICK HERE)
  4. Click on the ‘+’ icon in the blue cloud
  5. Create a password for the camera or use the password if you already have one.
  6. It will ask you to either register for mydlink service or add to your already existing account


Click on remote tab, you should see the camera listed and online. Upgrade firmware if it asks you to do.

If you don’t find the camera in local tab, LED is green on the camera

  1. Open mydlink lite app, click on ‘Add a New camera’
  2. Scan the QR Code or Manually select the camera from the list
  3. Select YES on WPS Setup screen. Swipe left until you see READY
  4. click on Ready (Do not press any WPS button on router or on the camera)
  5. Once done, it will ask you to create a password for the camera
  6. Once the timezone is selected, it will ask you to add to existing mydlink account or create a new account
  7. Setup should now be completed.

Through Universal setup wizard

  1. Download Universal Setup Wizard from mydlink.com or support.dlink.ca
  2. Once downloaded, open the file, allow or click yes if you see any firewall notifications.


3. Select language, Click on Start


4. Accept T & C (I Agree)


5. DO NOT choose the camera model, instead click on SKIP INSTRUCTION


6. No the wizard should show up all the cameras right now on the network. Select the camera you wish to add to your mydlink account.


7. Create a password for the camera & click NEXT


8. Create New account or use Existing account if you already have mydlink account.

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9. Setup is now complete.



DCS-960L Screenshots

Installing DCS-960L


Setup Maintenance Status
Network Setup Admin Device Info
Wireless Setup System System log
Dynamic DNS Firmware Upgrade Event log
Image Setup
Audio & Video
Motion detection
Sound detection
Video Clip
SD Recording
SD Management
Time & Date
Day/Night Mode

Setup > Wizard


Setup > Network Setup

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Setup > Wireless Setup

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Setup > Dynamic DNS


Setup > Image setup


Setup > Audio & Video


Setup > Preset


Setup > Motion detection


Setup > Sound Detection


Setup > Mail


Setup > FTP


Setup > Snapshot


Setup > Video Clip

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Setup > SD Recording

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Setup > SD management

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Setup > Time & date


Setup > Day/Night Mode


Maintenance > Admin


Maintenance > System


Maintenance > Firmware Upgrade


Status > Device info


Status > System Log


System > Event log



How to configure motion detection on D-Link cameras

D-Link cameras can be easily configured to send emails or record to SD card if there the camera detects any motion. You will receive an email with an video or image as attachment.





Screenshots for Advanced Settings through camera IP

  • Motion Detection via email/SD card

Step 1: You need to be login to the camera IP address

Step 2: Click on Setup, Motion detection and enable PIR or video motion (i recommend PIR for shorter distances)

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Step 3: Click on Event setup and  click Add under Server

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Step 4: Select Email, enter your email server details (you should get those details by a simple google search). Click on test, to test your email settings.
(If you wanted to record to an SD card, select SD card and save settings)

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Step 5: Go back to Event setup screen, Create a Media Type. Select Video clip, if you want to receive/save video clips or snapshots if you just want images.

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Step 5: Go back again to Event setup and select Event. Here you specify when to activate motion detection by the camera. Under Action, you will see an option if you created ’email’ server or ‘SD recording’

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Once you setup above steps, the camera will either send you an email about motion detection or get saved to SD card on the camera

You can also enable both SD card & email events at once. Camera can send email & record to SD card at the same time.

You have to create one more event from step 4. Once you create an server, step 5 event will be as below.

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Recording continuously to SD card

If you wanted to just record continuously to the SD card in the camera. Go back to Event setup page, click on ‘Add’ for Recording. Screenshot (33)

Make sure you click Save settings after each and every step.

Now you enabled recording on SD card. click on Setup > SD card
Click on Video for video files or pictures if you enabled snapshots.

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If you enabled continuous recording, files will be under ‘Record’.
If enabled motion detection recording, files will be under ‘Event’

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Files will be named in the format: YYYYMMDD

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Click on the file name .avi to download and open in vlc player to view the video.

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Motion Detection on DCS-960L

Through Camera IP for email

  1. Log into the camera IP address
  2. Click on Setup > Motion Detection. Check the box for Video motion detection. Select the area where the detection needs to be activated.screenshot-128
  3. Click on Setup > Mail
  4. If  you are creating ‘video motion detection‘, enter your email details and click save settings. Click on Test, to test your email settings.screenshot-129
  5. Once email settings are successful, you should receive an test email with the snapshot.
  6. Then click on Video clip on the left menu. Enable Video Clip, Trigger by: Motion. Select Target to Email and click save settings.screenshot-130

Through Camera IP for SD card

  1. Log into the camera IP address
  2. Click on Setup > Motion Detection. Check the box for Video motionscreenshot-128
  3. Click on SD recording on the left menu
  4. Enable SD recording and other recording types and Save settings.screenshot-131
  5. Click on SD Management on the left menu to retrieve recorded videosscreenshot-132 screenshot-133 screenshot-134

Through the mydlink lite app for SD card

Motion detection on DCS-936L through Camera IP -Email

  1. Login to the camera IP
  2. Click on Setup > Motion Detection
  3. Enable Video motion (Make sure you install the plugin)
  4. Click on Video Clip on the left menu, trigger by Motion
  5. Enter your email details, Save settings and Click Test to test your email settings.
    screenshot-114Motion detection on DCS-936L through Camera IP – SD Card

Click on Setup, SD recording


Through mydlink lite app for SD Card recording on Motion

Motion Detection Recording on DCS-2530 – Camera IP

  1. Login to the  camera IP
  2. Click on Setup, Motion Detection
  3. Enable Video Motion and select the area to be monitored and click Save settings
  4. Click on Setup, Event Setup on the left menu
  5. Under Server, click on Add
  6. Create a name for the server, here Email
  7. Enter your email settings and save settings (select SD card , if you want to setup SD Card as Server to record)
    Note: Click on Test to make sure your email settings are correct
  8. Click on Event setup on the left menu, Click on Add under Media
  9. Name the media type, here Video clip and save settings
  10. Go back to Event setup, click Add under Event
  11. Select the trigger settings. enable the event as per screenshot below and save settings.
    Motion detection through email is now complete, you should receive emails whenever camera detects any motion.
  12. If you want to enable continuous recording to the SD Card, Click on event setup, Recording. Select the recording schedule. Select the Destination under Recording Settings (Make sure you created SD card under Server).
    screenshot-90Alternate method: Motion Detection recording through mydlink lite app

DCS-2230 / DCS-2330 Menu options -Screenshots

Live Video Setup Advanced Maintenance Status Help
Camera Setup Wizard DI &DO Admin Device info Help
Logout Network Setup ICR & IR System Log Logout
Others Wireless Setup HTTPS Firmware UPgrade Logout
Dynamic DNS Access List  Logout
Image Setup SNMP
Audio & Video Logout
Motion Detection
Time and Date
Event Setup 

(Server, Media, Event, Recording)

SD Card

Live Video > Camera

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Setup > Setup Wizard

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Setup > Network Setup

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Setup > Wireless Setup

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Setup > Dynamic DNS

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Setup > Image setup

(Mirror, Flip, brightness, contrast, Saturation) 

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Setup > Audio & Video

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Setup > Preset

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Setup > Motion Detection

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Setup > Time & Date

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Setup > Event Setup

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Server >Event Setup >Server

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Setup > Event Setup > Media

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Setup > Event Setup > Event

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Setup >Event Setup > Recording

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Setup > SD Card

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Advanced > ICR & IR

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Advanced > Access list

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Maintenance > Admin

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Maintenance > System

(Save configuration, factory reset, Scheduled reboot)

Screenshot (59)

Maintenance > Firmware

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Status > Device Info

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